HARVARD STYLE OF REFERENCING
Harvard style is a format for writing and organizing citations of source materials. It is also known as the Harvard system, author-date system, and parenthetical referencing. Under Harvard referencing, a brief citation to a source is given in parentheses within the text of an article, and full citations are collected in alphabetical order under a "References" or "Works Cited" heading at the end. The citation in the text is placed in parentheses after the sentence or part thereof, followed by the year of publication, as in (Smith 2005), and a page number where appropriate (Smith 2005, p. 1) or (Smith 2005:1). Then in a References section, a full citation is given:
Smith, John. (2005). Playing nicely together. St. Petersburg, FL (USA): Wikimedia Foundation.
The structure of a citation under the Harvard referencing system is the author's surname, year of publication, and page number or range, in parentheses.
The page number or page range is omitted if the entire work is cited. The author's surname is omitted if it appears in the text. Thus we may say: "Jones (2001) revolutionized the field of trauma surgery."
Two or three authors are cited using "and" or "&": (Deane, Smith, and Jones, 1991) or (Deane, Smith & Jones, 1991). Six or more authors are cited using et al. (Deane et al. 1992).
An unknown date is cited as no date (Deane n.d.). A reference to a reprint is cited with the original publication date in square brackets (Marx  1967, p. 90).
If an author published two books in 2005, the year of the first (in the alphabetic order of the references) is cited and referenced as 2005a, the second as 2005b.
A citation is placed wherever appropriate in or after the sentence. If it is at the end of a sentence, it is placed before the period, but a citation for an entire block quote immediately follows the period at the end of the block since the citation is not an actual part of the quotation itself.
Complete citations are provided in alphabetical order in a section following the text, usually designated as "Works cited" or "References." The difference between a "works cited" or "references" list and a bibliography is that a bibliography may include works not directly cited in the text.
All citations are in the same font as the main text.
· This is the distinction between a document having a Reference section and a Bibliography, which may incorporate sources which may have been read by the authors as background but not referred to or included in the body of a document.
· When citing an internet source, it is also required to provide name and place of the sponsor of the source, access date, and either full URL or just the main site details, in addition to the information of the author(s)/editor(s), year of publication and the document title. The citing source is preferred to be marked with a square bracket either as [internet] or as [online] to emphasize the non-printed version.
Format should be Author's last name (no initials) followed directly by a comma, then the year of publication. When one makes the reference to the author(s) directly as a part of the narrative, then only the year (and page number if needed) would remain enclosed within brackets. The same holds for multiple authors.
A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2005).
Pauling (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
Authors should be presented in order that they appear in the published article. If they are cited within closed brackets, use the ampersand (&) between them. If not enclosed in brackets then use expanded "and".
A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling & Liu, 2005).
Pauling and Liu (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
Three to five authors
With three to five authors, the first reference to an article includes all authors. Subsequent citations in the same document may refer to the article by the principal author only plus "et al." >http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/et_al>" However; all authors must be present in the references section.
A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, Liu, & Guo, 2005).
Pauling, Liu, and Guo (2005) conducted a study that discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
Pauling et al. (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling et al., 2005).
Six authors or more
Starting with the first author mentioned in text, the correct format is (Author et al., Year). In the reference section, all six authors' names should be included.
Pauling et al. (2005) discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism.
Multiple publications, same author
If an author has multiple publications that you wish to cite, you use a comma to separate the years of publication in chronological order (oldest to most recent). If the publications occur in the same year, the Publication Manual recommends using suffixes a, b, c, etc. (note that corresponding letters should be used in the reference list, and these references should be ordered alphabetically by title).
A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Pauling, 2004, 2005a, 2005b).
Pauling (2004, 2005a, 2005b) conducted a study that discovered a possible genetic cause of alcoholism
Multiple publications, different authors
Follow the rules for one author above, and use a semicolon to separate articles. Citation should first be in alphabetical order of the author, then chronological.
A recent study found a possible genetic cause of alcoholism (Alford, 1995; Pauling, 2004, 2005; Sirkis, 2003)
The same rules as above apply here, the format being (Author, Year, Page Number).
When asked why his behavior had changed so dramatically, Max simply said "I think it's the reinforcement" (Pauling, 2004, p. 69).
Book by one
Sheril, R. D. (1956). The terrifying future: Contemplating color television. San Diego: Halstead.
Book by two or more authors:
Smith, J., & Peter, Q. (1992). Hairball: An intensive peek behind the surface of an enigma. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University Press.
Article in an edited book:
Mcdonalds, A. (1993). Practical methods for the apprehension and sustained containment of supernatural entities. In G. L. Yeager (Ed.), Paranormal and occult studies: Case studies in application (pp. 42–64). London: OtherWorld Books.
Article in a journal with continuous pagination:
Rottweiler, F. T., & Beauchemin, J. L. (1987). Detroit and Narnia: Two foes on the brink of destruction. Canadian/American Studies Journal, 54, 66–146.
Article in a journal paginated separately:
Crackton, P. (1987). The Loonie: God's long-awaited gift to colourful pocket change? Canadian Change, 64(7), 34–37.
Article in a monthly magazine:
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Article in a newspaper
Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). Misquotes are "Problematastic" says Mayor. Toronto Sol. p. 4.
Revenue Canada. (2001). Advanced gouging: Manual for employees (MP 65–347/1124). Ottawa: Minister of Immigration and Revenue.
For electronic references, websites and articles online, the APA Style website asserts some basic rules. The first is to direct readers specifically to the source material and the second is to provide references that work.
Internet article based on a print source
Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white [Electronic version]. Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–124.
Article in an Internet-only journal
Blofeld, E. S. (1994, March 1). Expressing oneself through Persian cats and modern architecture. Felines & Felons, 4, Article 0046g. Retrieved October 3, 1999, from http://journals.f+f.org/spectre/vblofeld-0046g.html
Article in an Internet-only newsletter
Paradise, S., Moriarty, D., Marx, C., Lee, O. B., Hassel, E., et al. (1957, July). Portrayals of fictional characters in reality-based popular writing: Project update. Off the beaten path, 7(3). Retrieved October 3, 1999, from http:/ www.newsletter. offthebeatenpath.news/otr/complaints.html
Stand-alone Internet document, no author
identified, no date
What I did today. (n.d.). Retrieved August 21, 2002, from http://www. cc.mystory. life/blog/didtoday.html
Document available on university program or department Web site
Rogers, B. (2078). Faster-than-light travel: What we've learned in the first twenty years. Retrieved August 24, 2079, from Mars University, Institute for Martian Studies Web site:
Electronic copy of a journal article, three to five authors, retrieved from database
Costanza, G., Seinfeld, J., Benes, E., Kramer, C., & Peterman, J. (1993). Minutić and insignificant observations from the nineteen-nineties. Journal about Nothing, 52, 475–649. Retrieved October 31, 1999, from NoTHINGJournals database.
E-mail or other personal communication (cite in
(A. Monterey, personal communication, September 28, 2001).
Book on CD
Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [CD]. New York: Random House/Listening Library.
Book on tape
Nix, G. (2002). Lirael, Daughter of the Clayr [Cassette Recording No. 1999-1999-1999]. New York: Random House/Listening Library.